Not to mention the Covid-19 pandemic has passed, the world is already in an uproar with the issue of climate change, which according to experts has a more devastating impact than the Covid-19 pandemic which is currently still engulfing many countries.
After Singapore, which was excited by the surge in corona cases, even though the vaccination rate was more than 80%. At the time of publication in a number of European countries also experienced a similar story with a spike in corona cases which forced the government to impose a lockdown policy which, among other things, triggered large protests by their people.
Climate change by experts is a big issue in the future. And a meeting called the Cop26 forum has resulted in a decision on how the world will deal with it.
- 1 Climate change definition
- 2 Climate change background
- 3 Climate change causes and effects
- 4 Climate change conference
- 5 Are climate change and global warming the same?
- 6 Can climate change cause natural disasters?
- 7 How does Climate Change affect the economy?
- 8 How does climate change affect agriculture?
- 9 How does climate change affect human health?
- 10 How does climate change affect animals?
- 11 How does climate change affects food security?
- 12 Have climate change predictions come true?
- 13 Final thought
Climate change definition
The definition of climate change is a change in the physical conditions of the earth’s atmosphere, including temperature and distribution of rainfall which has a wide impact on various sectors of human life.
Environment Changes conditions do not occur only in the short term but in the long term. Other experts define it as the average change in one or more weather elements in a particular area. Meanwhile, global-scale climate change is referred to the earth’s area as a whole.
Climate change refers to the variation in the average climatic conditions of a place or to its statistically significant variability over a long period of time.
What causes these changes are due to internal environmental processes and also external forces. Besides human activities that cause changes in the composition of the atmosphere and land use.
Climate change background
Typically Climate change is the impact of global warming. It is the phenomenon of increasing global temperature from year to year due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
But climate change is not solely due to global warming due to greenhouse gases. Other reasons include damage to the ozone layer, damage to forest functions, uncontrolled use of Chloro Flour Carbon (CFC), and also industrial exhaust gases.
Climate change causes and effects
It has been mentioned above that the cause of climate change is the impact of global warming, while global warming can be caused by human activities in exploring natural resources such as deforestation.
The impact of logging causes the soil to no longer be able to absorb water properly so that it can trigger floods in high rainfall.
The destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere is due to the influence of greenhouse gases, and also carbon pollution caused by the use of coal.
Experts say that the impact could lead to a chain of cause and effect. Climate change that occurs continuously can cause effects such as:
- High rainfall.
- Prolonged dry season.
- An increase in the volume of water is due to the melting of the polar ice caps.
- The occurrence of a tornado natural disaster.
- Reduced water sources.
These effects can ultimately affect human life itself as a result of their own hands using environmentally friendly energy sources. These impacts are not only detrimental to humans but also agricultural, animal, and human health problems.
Climate change due to deforestation
According to a Carbon Brief report, deforestation has caused the hottest days in Europe, Asia, and North America. Why did that happen? Trees are very important to prevent global warming. It has the function to capture CO2 so that it doesn’t get into the atmosphere.
Because there has been too much deforestation so that it becomes bare land, the function of capturing CO2 is no longer possible and more CO2 is released into the air and damages the atmosphere layer so that the shield becomes thin to withstand the heat of the sun.
Deforestation in the industrial era where a lot of wood is needed for consumption purposes without any control can damage the environment.
Since 1990 more than 129m hectares of forest have been logged by humans, which is equivalent to the area of southern Africa. According to the study, deforestation contributed 30% of CO2 emissions from 1861-2000.
If this condition is allowed to continue, it can trigger more severe damage to the atmosphere and the impact is very detrimental to life on earth. How to prevent is humans make efforts by replanting forests or restoring with newly planted trees that function to capture CO2.
Climate change greenhouse effect
Another cause contributing to the destruction of the atmospheric ozone layer is the greenhouse gas effect.
Refers to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities increased by 43 % from 1990 to 2015. It has accounted for carbon dioxide emissions of about three-quarters of total emissions, an increase of 51% over this period.
The increase in greenhouse gases occurred since the industrial era where most of the world’s emissions resulted from transportation, power generation, and other forms of energy production and use.
The burning of fossil fuels, including coal, oil and natural gas, solid waste, and trees and wood products, is the reason for the increase in carbon dioxide that damages the atmosphere.
Climate change conference
Climate change conferences have been started since 1995. The first time was held in Berlin, Germany. The Climate Change Conference they are members countries of the United Nations is an annual conference for UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The participants are also called the Conference of the Parties (COP).
The COP is the ultimate decision-maker of the conference and oversees the effectiveness of implementation and other legal instruments.
Referring to data from Wikipedia, climate change conferences have been held 26 times and the last one was at COP26 which was held at Scottish Event Campus, Glasgow, the United Kingdom on 31 Oct 2021 – 12 Nov 2021.
COP 26 result conference
COP26 is the first high-level meeting where each country also has new demands. More than 100 emerging countries commit to submitting demands on the COP26, which include:
- Emerging countries expect funding from developed countries to mitigate climate change.
- Get compensation from developed countries for the impact that will befall emerging countries.
- Money from a group of developed countries to help them implement a more environmentally friendly economy.
But. the results of COP 26, in general, are the fact that Glasgow’s climate is not sufficient to contain the current rate of global warming.
However, the COP26 results have increased confidence for implementation which is more tangible than the various elements in the Paris Agreement.
Some of the substance notes that are quite crucial are as many as 196 countries have committed to reducing the use of coal as an energy source and reducing subsidies for fossil-based energy. That deal is a reflection of the different national conditions in each country.
From the results of the conference, one important point is that the commitments made by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not enough to prevent global warming, which is currently getting worse.
In addition, the insistence on developed countries to prove their contribution to mitigating the causes and impacts of climate change is getting stronger. Because without it, small countries feel sacrificed in the name of the common interest of the people on earth.
Although the results of COP26 were not as expected, the main goal of the state parties is all countries parties have obligations, efforts, and efforts to realize. If no effort is made, the commitments made under the Paris Agreement will not be achieved.
Are climate change and global warming the same?
Climate change and global warming are different, but often these terms are used interchangeably. Global warming here is only part of climate change. Because the climate parameter is not only temperature. But there are other related parameters such as precipitation, cloud conditions, wind, and solar radiation.
Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere close to the Earth’s surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming occurs as a result of increasing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.
The result of the increased intensity of the greenhouse effect causes the depletion of the atmosphere that absorbs heat rays, infrared rays emitted by the earth, causing global climate change.
Can climate change cause natural disasters?
According to one climate scientist at the Swiss University of ETH Zurich, Sonia Seneviratne climate change can cause natural disasters. According to him, climate change can exacerbate natural disasters, including hurricanes or heat waves.
Scientists have also conducted simulations to understand the link between extreme weather and climate change. They also take into account observations made over the last few decades to get a broad picture. As a result, major influence on extreme weather that causes various disasters, such as floods, fires, and so on.
The increasing frequency and intensity of heatwaves around the world are closely related to climate change. Scientists give examples of rising temperatures in Siberia and massive forest fires in Russia as a result of the ferocity of climate change.
The relationship between climate change and heatwaves is corroborated by the fact from 2018. In that year, heat waves simultaneously hit Europe, Japan, and North America.
Rainstorms and floods
Scientists also conclude the impacts of climate change include natural disasters such as hurricanes, rains, and floods.
Researchers from the University of Bristol, UK found that climate change could make thunderstorms five times more likely in the Caribbean. The disaster is very possible because the emissions are increasing day by day.
Moreover, heatwaves that are raising sea temperatures are also likely to contribute to extreme rainfall and flooding in China. Evidently, this summer alone, China has experienced the most severe flooding in the last three decades.
How does Climate Change affect the economy?
Columbia Climate School writes that climate change will have an impact on infrastructure damage, it occurs due to rising temperatures, rising sea levels, and extreme weather.
The impact is not only on infrastructure damage but also on human health and productivity and extends to agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and tourism. All of which can lead to an economic impact on the community.
In a recent report by Nature, climate change will impact 22 different sectors of the economy.
The economic impact for example in 2017, Hurricane Harvey caused $125 billion in losses in Texas, and Hurricane Sandy caused an estimated $71 billion in damage in 2012.
How does climate change affect agriculture?
The agricultural sector is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, says environmental economist Geoffrey Heal, a professor at Columbia Business School. Extreme rainfall can cause the agricultural sector to experience crop failure.
Due to flooding when rainfall is extreme, many fields have been washed away and livestock has been drowned. Like the flood in Nebraska which caused the loss of livestock worth $440 million.
How does climate change affect human health?
According to the CDC, Climate change affects health in many ways. Health threats will increase by being influenced by age, economic resources, and location. The impact may not be the same for everyone.
Furthermore, CDC mentioned in the U.S., health is affected by the disruption of physical, biological, and ecological systems.
Extreme weather can cause health problems such as an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, injuries, and premature death. Food and water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases, and threats to mental health.
Meanwhile, WHO states that affects the availability of clean air, healthy drinking water, safe food, and shelter. WHO estimates the death toll from climate change in 2030 and 2050, at about 250,000 additional deaths per year. It was the result of malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress.
WHO further predicts that developing countries will find it difficult to cope without assistance.
How does climate change affect animals?
Climate change also affects animal life. More species are becoming extinct due to climate change in the environment in which they live. Global warming makes habitats uncomfortable and inhospitable.
Pollution that pollutes animal habitats causes their food to be contaminated and forces them to adapt to an uncomfortable environment. If the animals do not find a comfortable place for migration then extinction will occur to them.
According to GVI, there are six animals that have faced the effects of climate change.
Cheetahs have experienced a declining population, they do not get food nutrition like their former habitat and reduce sperm quality which results in poor reproduction.
Panda bear. This animal feeds on bamboo, as a result of the diminishing bamboo-this animal is also threatened by climate change. This animal from China is also threatened with extinction because climate change can cause the bamboo to not grow properly.
This green turtle is very sensitive to changes in temperature. They need sand at the right temperature to produce male baby turtles. Too hot temperatures cause more female green turtles and allow a shortage of male green turtles to breed.
Elephants need fresh water every day to survive, climate change makes it difficult for elephants to get water every day. The hottest temperatures also cause the growth of invasive plants that make it difficult for plants that are food for elephants to grow such as bamboo leaves and bananas.
Animals that live in arctic sea ice are also facing challenges due to global warming. The amount of melting ice has reduced their habitat for seal hunting. The melting ice has caused the polar bear’s habitat to become narrow, it reduces the range of motion to hunt for food.
This is a type of bird that lives on the continent of Antarctica and feeds on krill – shrimp-like creatures that live under the ice sheet. Global warming has caused the ice in this area to melt causing the krill population to decrease. When these penguins migrate they do not find food so it is difficult to breed.
How does climate change affects food security?
Climate change is also suspected to have an impact on food security. In food-scarce countries, the impact is greater with low adaptation rates. Global warming resulting in long dry spells or extreme rainfall can damage agriculture, which is the main source of food. Higher levels of reduced CO2 also affect the nutrients needed in the food system.
Have climate change predictions come true?
The Conservation explains that climate change has been accurately predicted since 20 years ago. The world is currently on a path of radical climate change.
A group of scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in 1990 that global warming will rise by about 1.1 degrees Celsius between 1990 and 2030.
In a Quora question and answer panel, someone corroborated with some predictions that were always accurate, such as nights are heating faster than days, winters are warming faster than summers. And a series of evidence that wants to strengthen predictions of climate change will come true.
But the future will still be a mystery when we have not entered that era. Because humans only plan, sometimes plans don’t turn out to be the truth.
Climate change caused by carbon emissions is mostly produced by developed countries, but the impact will be more severe on emerging countries.
And with the commitment of hundreds of countries to contribute to reducing the use of fossil fuels and coal, it is a challenge in itself because it requires complex adaptations,
For example, when the use of coal has been abandoned for power generation, the state must have renewable energy sources that can cover the energy that is the needs of its people.
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