What is Crude Oil Mean?
Crude oil l is a greenish to black-brown liquid consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen. The most commonly used theory to explain the origin of petroleum is “organic source materials”.
This theory states that petroleum is a product of natural changes from substances organic derived from of left plants, animal.
As a result of the influence of pressure, temperature, the presence of metal compounds and minerals and geological location during the process of change, the petroleum will have different compositions in different places.
Crude Oil composition
Crude Oil has a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds as much as 50-98% by weight, the left consist of substances organic.
Containing sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen as well as inorganic compounds such as vanadium, nickel, sodium, iron, aluminium, calcium, and magnesium.
In general, the composition of petroleum consists of Carbon (C) 84 – 87%, Hydrogen (H) 11 – 14%, Sulfur (S) 0 – 3%, Nitrogen (N) 0 – 1%, Oxygen (O) 0 – 2%.
Based on its compound content, crude oil can be divided into hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon groups and metal compounds.
The main hydrocarbons are paraffin, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics.
is a group of straight chain saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), CnH2n + 2. Examples are methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), n-butane (C4H10), isobutane (2-methyl propane, C4H10), isopentane (2-methyl butane, C5H12), and isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, C8H18).
The number of compounds belonging to isoparaffin compounds is far more than that of n-paraffin compounds. However, in crude petroleum, the levels of isoparaffins are usually smaller than paraffin.
Olefins are a group of unsaturated hydrocarbons, CnH2n. Examples are ethylene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), and butena (C4H8).
Naphthene is a saturated hydrocarbon compound that forms a ring structure with the molecular formula CnH2n. Naphthene group compounds that are commonly found are compounds whose ring structure is composed of 5 or 6 carbon atoms.
Examples are cyclopentane (C5H10), methylcyclopentane (C6H12) and cyclohexane (C6H12). Generally, in crude oil, naphthene is a group of hydrocarbon compounds which has the second highest concentration after n-paraffin.
This is unsaturated hydrocarbons cored carbon atoms that form a benzene ring (C6H6). Examples are benzene (C6H6), methylbenzen (C7H8), and naphthalene (C10H8). Petroleum from Sumatra and Kalimantan generally have relatively large levels of aromatics.
In addition to compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, non-hydrocarbon compounds such as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, vanadium, nickel and sodium are also bound to hydrocarbon chains or rings. These elements are generally not desirable in petroleum refining products, so their existence will greatly influence the steps of processing carried out on a petroleum.
Sulfur is in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), free sulfur (S), mercaptan (R-SH, with R = alkyl groups), sulfide (RS-R ‘), disulfide (RSS-R’) and tiofen (cyclic sulfide). compounds sulfur are not desirable because:
- Cause unpleasant odours and corrosive properties in processing products.
- Reduce the effectiveness of feed substances on processing products.
- Poison cracking catalysts.
- Causing air pollution (in burning fuel oil, sulfur compounds are oxidized to corrosive substances that endanger the environment, namely SO2 and SO3).
Nitrogen compounds are divided into alkaline substances such as 3-methylpyridine (C6H7N) and quinoline (C9H7N) and non-alkaline substances such as pyrol (C4H5N), indole (C8H7N) and carbazole (C12H9N).
Compounds nitrogen can interfere with the smooth operation of catalytic processing which, if carried into the product, adversely affects odour, colour stability, and the ageing properties of the product.
Oxygen is usually bound in a carboxylic group in naphthenic acids (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexankarboxylic, C10H18O2) and fatty acids (alkanoates), phenolic hydroxy groups and ketone groups. Compounds oxygen do not cause serious problems such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds in catalytic processes.
Crude Oil usually contains 0.001-0.05% by weight of metal. highest metal content vanadium, nickel and sodium. These metals are in the form of salt dissolved in water that is suspended in oil or in the form of organometal compounds which are soluble in oil. Vanadium and nickel are toxic to petroleum processing catalysts and can cause problems if carried into processing products.
The Largest Country Producing Oil in the World
Crude oil is a natural resource that is very important for modern human life today. Fuels for motorized vehicles such as Premium, Pertamax, Solar are processed from crude oil.
The following is the List of the Largest Oil Producing Countries in the World along with the amount of production in barrels per day or abbreviated as bbl / d (barrel per day).
- The United States is able to produce: 12.31 million barrels per day, located on the continent: North America is not a member of OPEC
- Saudi Arabia is capable production: 11.59 million barrels per day, located in the Continent: Asia (Middle East) who is also an OPEC Member
- Russia can produce: 10.53 million barrels per day. are on the Continent: Asia and Europe and not OPEC Members
- China is able to produce: 4.46 million barrels per day in the Continent: Asia but not an OPEC Member
- Canada able to produce: 4.07 million barrels per day located in the Continent: North America and not an OPEC Member
- United Arab Emirates able to produce: 3.23 million barrels per day located in the Continent: Asia (Middle East)and become an OPEC Member
- Iran produces 3.19 million barrels per day, located on Continent Asia (Middle East) and as OPEC member
- Iraq produce: 3.06 million barrels per day, located in the Continent: Asia (Middle East)also became: OPEC member
- Mexico Production: 2.91 million barrels per day located in the Continent: North America and Not an OPEC Member
- Kuwait Production: 2.81 million barrels per day located in the Continent: Asia (Middle East) also a member of OPEC
Note: The total production yield above is the average barrel per day in 2013.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an International Organization consisting of the most Petroleum Exporting Countries in the world. The aim of the establishment of OPEC is to coordinate and unite the oil policies of member countries and ensure the stability of the petroleum market and its supply.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) established by 5 Petroleum exporting countries.
Namely Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela on September 14, 196,0 in Baghdad, Iraq.
At present, OPEC or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has 14 Member States and is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
Saudi Arabia is the OPEC member country that exports the most oil, which is 7.46 million barrels per day. Iraq was followed by exporting 3.8 million barrels of oil per day. While in third place is the United Arab Emirates which exports 2.4 million barrels of oil per day.
OPEC member countries are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iran. Venezuela ,, Nigeria, Angola, Algeria, Qatar, Ecuador, Libya Gabon, Equatorial Guinea.