Since the presence of the Tesla motor, which carries electric cars with advanced technology, the discourse about electric cars replacing gasoline cars has become public discourse.
One of the reasons for the development of electric cars is that they are considered environmentally friendly. Because it doesn’t emit smoke from the exhaust. So it doesn’t pollute the environment.
So Will electric cars replace gasoline cars? This is an interesting question because if electric cars displace gasoline cars, gasoline car companies will have to adjust to market demands.
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- 1 What are electric cars?
- 2 How do electric cars work?
- 3 Are electric cars better for the environment?
- 4 Electric car battery
- 5 Can an electric car run on petrol?
- 6 Electric car companies
- 7 Electric car vs petrol car
- 8 Electric car available in Malaysia
- 9 Electric car charging station Malaysia
- 10 When will electric cars replace gas cars?
- 11 Final thought
What are electric cars?
An electric vehicle is a vehicle that uses propulsion in the form of an electric motor, also known as a traction motor. To move an electric vehicle, need one or more electric motors can be used.
So an electric car is a vehicle that uses an electric motor that is driven by electric power. There are three kinds of electric vehicles according to the way they are charged.
- An electric vehicle that uses an outside charging station.
- vehicles that have stored electricity, which previously get an external source of electricity.
- Electric vehicles use an electric generator. Known as hybrid vehicles or hydrogen cells.
Although in developing countries there are still few electric cars on the roads, other electric vehicles such as electric scooters or electric bicycles have started to grow in demand.
Four Types electric cars
Types of electric cars are broadly divided into four as follows:
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV).
- Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV).
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV).
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
Electric cars BEV-type are vehicles that operate entirely on electricity in batteries. This type of BEV does not have a combustion engine.
Electricity saved in the battery pack. Charging the battery is carried out by connecting it to an external power grid. Components Electric car type BEV include:
- Electric motor.
- Control module (controller).
- Drive train.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
This type is called a standard hybrid, or parallel hybrid. The HEV type has two drive systems, namely the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the traction motor.
ICE gets its energy from fuel. The motor is powered by a battery. The gasoline engine and motorbike simultaneously rotate the transmission to move the wheels.
The difference between the type of HEV car compared to the BEV type and the PHEV type is where the battery in the HEV is only charged due to engine rotation, wheel movement, or a combination of both. This car does not have a charging port so the battery cannot be recharged from outside.
HEV Electric Car Components:
- Electric motor.
- Battery pack with controller & inverter.
- Fuel tank.
- Control module.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
It is a hybrid with Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric traction motor. This type of electric car can be powered by fossil energy sources such as gasoline or alternative sources like biodiesel and by batteries.
Unlike HEV, the battery in this type of car can be recharged from an external power source by connecting the external power source to the inlet (charging port) of the car at an electric car charging station (EVCS).
PHEV can operate in two modes:
- Hybrid mode, where electricity and gasoline are used together.
- All-electric mode, where only electricity in the battery as energy moves the car.
PHEV type vehicle components:
- Electric motor.
- Fuel tank.
- Control module.
- Battery Charger for on-board type.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
This type is also known as a Fuel-Cell Vehicle (FCV) or Zero Emission vehicle.
Using fuel-cell technology to generate electricity. Electricity is used to activate the motor to run the vehicle.
The working principle of the FCEV type electric car is almost similar to how the BEV type electric car works. It’s just that this type has a system that converts the chemical energy in the fuel cell into electricity.
FCEV component :
- Electric motor.
- Fuel-cell stack.
- Hydrogen storage tank.
- Battery with converter & controller.
How do electric cars work?
In summary, how an electric car works are as follows:
- When the pedal on the car is pressed, then the controller unit will take and regulate the electrical power from the traction battery and inverter.
- With the controller, the inverter then sends a certain amount of electrical energy to the motor based on the depth of pressure on the pedal.
- Electric traction motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to rotate the wheel.
- The rotation of the rotor on the motor will rotate the transmission so that the wheels rotate and the car moves.
The way the electric car works above is for the BEV type, while the hybrid has a fuel supply tank to the engine like an ordinary car and it can work simultaneously.
In the hybrid electrical vehicle type, when there is braking, the motor turns into a generator and then charges the battery.
Meanwhile, the PHEV type usually starts with an “all-electric mode” which uses electrical energy until the battery runs out.
Some models of this type of car can switch to hybrid mode when the vehicle’s speed is stable on the road, generally above 60 or 70 miles per hour.
Once the battery is empty, the engine takes over. The car also operates as a conventional non-plug-in hybrid.
Are electric cars better for the environment?
Many people think that electric cars are environmentally friendly technology. However, this reason is still a lot of debate, but in general, the reason is about exhaust gas.
Some of the reasons why electric cars are more environmentally friendly are as follows:
Safer exhaust emissions
Electric Cars technology do not have an exhaust so they don’t emit exhaust gas. Although there are still exhaust emissions from the use of tires and brakes, electric cars are relatively safer to maintain air quality free from fuel pollution.
Easy to machine maintenance
Electric cars only need to maintain brake components and replace the car battery. Most electric cars also come with a battery warranty in a matter of years
There are also not too many mechanical components in the engine system. Therefore, if there are not too many components if damaged must be repaired so that it saves time and money.
Reducing noise and air pollution
Electric cars are not noisy because they don’t make a sound. And not also air pollution, so that when passing in front of a neighbor’s house does not interfere with noise.
However, it actually endangers pedestrians when crossing the highway. So that electric car manufacturers have to make an artificial sound called the Acoustic Vehicle Alert System (AVAS).
This system is necessary to provide an alert for pedestrians when an electric car crosses the highway to minimize collision or accident.
Electric car battery
Electric car batteries are different from SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition) batteries. SLI batteries are batteries that are usually installed in petrol or diesel cars.
Meanwhile, batteries for electric cars work as a storage system for electric power, capable of distributing power for a long and continuous period of time. Electric batteries have five types as follows:
- Lithium-Ion (Li-On).
- Nickel-Metal Hybrid (NiMH).
- Lead Acid (SLA).
- ZEBRA (Zero Emissions Batteries Research Activity).
Lithium-Ion (Li-On) Battery
Lithium-Ion has a greater energy ratio per weight. The smaller the battery weight (same kWh capacity) means the car can travel further on a single charge.
This battery also has a low “self-discharge” rate, so it performs best compared to other batteries at maintaining the ability to withstand a full charge.
Types of Li-On batteries
- LFP-Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4).
- NCA-Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2).
- NMC-Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2).
- LTO-Lithium Titanate (Li2TiO3).
- LMO-Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4).
- LCO-Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2).
Nickel-Metal Hybrid (NiMH) Battery
When compared to lithium-ion batteries or SLA batteries, NiMH batteries have a longer cycle life. Which is safer in case of improper use.
However, there are several drawbacks to NiMH batteries, including:
- Generates significant heat at high temperatures.
- High self-discharge rate.
- The price is relatively more expensive.
NiMH battery parameter
Lead-Acid Battery (SLA)
The lead-acid battery has a heavier weight than Li-On or NiMH, but the price is cheaper. Currently, commercial vehicles are widely used as a secondary storage system.
SLA battery parameter
This type of ultracapacitor electric car battery actually stores polarized fluid between the electrode and the electrolyte.
The ultracapacitor battery is very suitable as a secondary storage device in electric vehicles. This is because the ultracapacitor helps the electrochemical battery increase its load level.
In addition, the ultracapacitor can provide extra power to electric vehicles during acceleration as well as regenerative braking.
ZEBRA (Zero Emissions Batteries Research Activity) battery
It is a low-temperature variant of the sodium-sulfur (NaS) battery and is an extension of ZEBRA.
Initially named “Zeolite Battery Research Africa” later became the “Zero Emissions Batteries Research Activity” battery in 1985. The ZEBRA battery uses NaAlCl4 with Na + -beta-alumina ceramic electrolyte.
ZEBRA battery characteristics
- A high-temperature battery operates at more than 270 ° C.
- High power cell so it is suitable as a type of electric car battery.
- The chemical Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaNiCl) provides a nominal operating cell voltage of 2.58 Volts.
There are several advantages of ZEBRA, it has a high energy density even five times higher than SLA batteries.
By using large cells up to 500Ah. These batteries have a life cycle higher than 1000 cycles.
Has a short circuit tolerance that is more secure than Sodium Sulfur cells. Even though there is a cell failure it does not cause the battery to be completely damaged. Another advantage is the low cost.
- Only suitable for large-capacity batteries (> 20KWh).
- High internal resistance.
- Liquid sodium electrode.
- High operating temperature.
- Preheating is required to get the battery to an operating temperature of 270 ° C (up to 24 hours from cold conditions).
- Even though it is not being used, to maintain this temperature it uses 14% of its own capacity per day.
- Thermal management required.
Can electric car batteries be recycled?
This is an important question for protecting the environment as a whole. Although electric cars are considered more environmentally friendly because they don’t have exhaust gases.
However, waste batteries that are damaged due to time use can be a problem in themselves if not handled properly.
Nowadays more electric cars that were on the road are using recycled Li-On batteries. And this type of battery can be recycled.
The lead-acid battery is about 96% recoverable. And nickel batteries also can be recycled through disassembly.
The increase in electric car users could encourage the emergence of recycling companies as a new opportunity in business.
Can an electric car run on petrol?
There are electric cars that are made purely using only electricity as a source of energy to turn the wheels. This electric vehicle has no emissions. However, battery power is the key to turning the wheels.
Other types of electric cars are made hybrids that can run electrically and when the electric power is reduced, they can be switched to run on petrol. When using an electric car there are no emissions, but when using petrol there will be emissions.
Hybrid cars are divided into two types, namely Plug-in hybrid and Hybrid-electric. What distinguishes the two is that the plug-in hybrid can be recharged via an external electric source, while the Hybrid electric cannot be recharged from an external electric source, but it will recharge through regenerative braking.
Electric car companies
Electric vehicles in the next few decades can dominate the market because it offers environmentally friendly. This type of vehicle has grown in popularity after Tesla motorcycles made the highest sales in 2019.
The list of electric car companies in the top 10 producers with the highest sales in 2019:
- Tesla: 160,000 units.
- BYD: 141,500 units.
- BJEV: 68,900 units.
- SAIC: 65,450 units.
- BMW: 56,500 units.
- Nissan: 47,500 units.
- Geely: 47,200 units
- Volkswagen: 39,600 units.
- Hyundai: 34,500 units.
- JAC: 32,000 units.
With increasing competition, conventional car manufacturers are also making production innovations by developing electric cars. For example, Audi, Citroen, Peugeot, BMW, Chevrolet, and others will compete in the development and sale of electric cars. See Wikipedia’s list of Electrics cars.
Electric car vs petrol car
When the invention of the petrol car grew and became an important mode of transportation in the economic cycle, this led to an increase in the demand for oil as the base material for car fuel.
While the invention of the electric car may replace the traditional car, some of the basic differences between the two are as follows:
Source of power
Petrol cars use an internal combustion engine (ICE) as the main engine of the car. Fuel is supplied to the engine where the combustion products produce energy to move the piston. Then the linear motion of the piston is transferred to a rotary motion using the slider-crank mechanism. Then there is a transmission for transferring this rotary motion to the drive wheels.
Whereas in an electric car, the energy source comes from the battery. Then there is an inverter that will convert the DC battery power into 3 phase AC. These 3 AC phases will be used to change the induction motor which will drive the driving wheels.
Petrol cars require very complicated components, especially the reciprocating components to make them unbalanced, so they need a weight balancer to be stable.
Then the engine also cannot turn on by itself so it takes a DC motor. The flywheel is also needed to add smoothness to the power and the alternator to charge it.
An electric car uses an induction motor that moves with the help of a rotating magnetic field generated by the stator.
The motor speed can be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the AC power input. All this provides a uniform output power and speed and is self-igniting. So overall for weight, petrol cars are much heavier than electric motors and electric motors produce more power and torque.
Petrol cars take far less time than electric cars when refueling. A petrol car only takes a few minutes to fully fill the fuel tank. Meanwhile, electric cars need charging that takes more than 1 hour and even up to 3 hours.
Energy source packaging
Petrol fuel has a very large energy density so it only requires a smaller tank. In electric cars, lithium-ion batteries don’t have that much energy density, making the required battery storage space very large.
Usually, this is placed evenly on the base of the car making the car heavy. This heavyweight causes the car’s friction coefficient with the asphalt to be reduced. But on the other hand, it can create more stability because it is placed low enough to approach the point of gravity.
The torque and power
In terms of power efficiency, electric cars are superior to petrol cars. An electric car does not require a complex transmission and the speed can be directly controlled from the motor. Whereas in a petrol car, the internal combustion engine cannot be operated over a certain speed range. It takes a complex transmission mechanism to control its speed.
Electric car available in Malaysia
Can you live in Malaysia with an electric car? In Malaysia from sources carsome.my and Carlist.my are available on the market for the BMW i3s and the Nissan Leaf. It is an electric car from a different manufacturer that is ready to compete for the Malaysian electric car market.
Apart from the two, there is also the Renault Zoe which is priced at around RM145,888. This is much lower than the BMW i3S at RM278,800, and the Nissan Leaf at a price of around RM188,888.
Electric car charging station Malaysia
Citing from carsome.my in 2020 in Malaysia there are more than 300 charging stations spread across the national territory of Malaysia. With most power charges are 3.7kW AC.
Some of the most important charging stations in Malaysia are:
- Suria Kuala Lumpur City Center- Level P2 Car Park.
- Lot 10 Shopping Center at 5th Floor Car Park.
- Bangsar Shopping Center at Lower Ground Floor Car Park.
- Wisma Tan Chong at Director’s car park.
- Petronas Solaris, Serdang.
- Nissan Petaling Jaya.
- TC Euro Cars Sdn. Bhd.
- Nissan TCEAS Setapak, Kota Damansara and Batu Caves.
- Exorbitant Prices.
When will electric cars replace gas cars?
Nobody knows exactly when electric cars replace gas, or petrol, cars. The policies of each country can also affect the growth of electric cars in the market. One of the reasons for a country to develop electric cars is to reduce imports of fuel oil as a source of power for traditional cars.
Meanwhile, a Bloomberg analysis predicts that there will be an increase in electric car users until 2040. It is possible that in the next fifty to one-century electric vehicle users will reach 90% of the population. As a result, if these conditions are met, the price of oil will drop further due to falling demand.
In some countries, it appears that they have started to develop electric vehicle plants so that the acceleration to reduce the greenhouse gas effect and pollution caused by fuel vehicles can be reduced.
However, this requires a supportive infrastructure, because one of the main drawbacks of electric vehicles is the battery recharging time. For motorists who want to rush to a place, if they have to recharge the batteries, they may be late to their destination.
The developer of the electric vehicle must think hard about how to recharge the battery with a very fast system.
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